TUM – Latest news https://www.tum.de Latest news of TUM en TUM Mon, 06 Jul 2020 18:36:57 +0200 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 18:36:57 +0200 How do bacteria build up natural products? https://www.tum.de/en/about-tum/news/press-releases/details/36121/ Many important drugs such as antibiotics or active agents against cancer are natural products which are built up by microorganisms for example bacteria or fungi. In the laboratory, these natural products can often be not produced at all or only with great effort. The starting point of a large number of such compounds are polyketides, which are carbon chains where every second atom has a double bound to an oxygen atom.

In a microbial cell such as in the Photorhabdus luminescens bacterium, they are produced with the help of polyketide synthases (PKS). In order to build up the desired molecules step by step, in the first stage of PKS type II systems, four proteins work together in changing “teams”.

In a second stage, they are then modified to the desired natural product by further enzymes. Examples of bacterial natural products which are produced that way are, inter alia, the clinically used Tetracyclin antibiotics or Doxorubicin, an anti-cancer drug.

battenberg@zv.tum.de news-36120 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 15:42:07 +0200
Gut bacteria improve type 2 diabetes risk prediction https://www.tum.de/en/about-tum/news/press-releases/details/36118/ The microbial composition of the intestines is complex and varies widely from one individual to another. Many factors such as environmental factors, lifestyle, genetics or illnesses affect the intestinal ecosystem of helpful gut bacteria.

Dirk Haller, Professor for Nutrition and Immunology at TUM, and his team have examined the importance of daytime-dependent fluctuations of the gut microbiome in relation to type 2 diabetes; they present their study encompassing more than 4000 people and it is the first study in this field based on a large prospective human cohort.

Research news katharina.baumeister@tum.de news-36117 Mon, 06 Jul 2020 11:32:00 +0200
University elections on July 28, 2020 https://www.tum.de/en/about-tum/news/press-releases/details/36115/ Election date

Tuesday July 28, 2020, from 9 am to 5 pm

Which positions are elected?

  • the students' representatives in the senate and in all faculty councils or in the School Council of the TUM School of Life Sciences and in all study faculty councils
  • the representatives of professors, scientific staff and other employees in the faculty councils of the TUM School of Governance and the Department of Aerospace and Geodesy as well as in the School Council of the TUM School of Life Sciences
  • the student representatives in all department councils
  • the students' representatives on the Institute Council of the Integrative Research Center " Technical University Munich - Campus Straubing for Biotechnology and Sustainability"
  • the deans of the Departments of Architecture, Electrical and Computer Engineering, the TUM School of Governance and the Department of Aerospace and Geodesy
  • the department heads of the Department of Molecular Life Sciences, the Department of Life Science Engineering and the Department of Life Science Systems (at the TUM School of Life Sciences)
  • the representatives of professors and scientific staff of the study faculty of the Munich School of Engineering
Campus news a.schmidt@tum.de news-36115 Fri, 03 Jul 2020 09:51:53 +0200
Nutrition in the days of COVID https://www.tum.de/en/about-tum/news/press-releases/details/36110/ Covid-19 Research news Katharina.Baumeister@tum.de news-36109 Thu, 02 Jul 2020 07:48:00 +0200 Exploring uncharted scientific territory with a pioneering spirit and collective creativity https://www.tum.de/en/about-tum/news/press-releases/details/36107/ The idea behind the TUM Innovation Networks is to unleash the university community’s collective creativity right from the start. From July 1 to September 15, TUM professors and TUM junior fellows are invited to submit highly innovative, creative ideas that have the potential to become a TUM Innovation Network. These ideas will then be turned into robust research concepts in a workshop held with international researchers. The most promising project ideas will be given the status of “TUM Innovation Network” and will be funded up to EUR 2 million over a period of four years.

Campus news news-36106 Wed, 01 Jul 2020 09:57:00 +0200
EUR 40 million for new TUM institute https://www.tum.de/en/about-tum/news/press-releases/details/36112/ The marked increase of resistant bacteria and the associated massively increasing danger of infections of humans and animals which cannot be treated with antibiotics is, in the long term, one of the biggest scientific, medical and social challenges of our time.

“Without innovations, we are at risk of falling back to the pre-antibiotic era in which simple injuries could develop into deathly threats,” says founding director Dietmar Zehn, professor of animal physiology and immunology at the Technical University of Munich. “The number of deaths caused by infections, which is just under one million per year, could rise to about ten million by 2050.”

The Technical University of Munich therefore combines its competencies for the development of innovative strategies for the prevention, combatting and prevention of the spread of resistant pathogens in a new research building, the Center for Integrated Infection Prevention (ZIP).

The Joint Science Conference of the Federation and the Länder (GWK) has now decided that the Federal Government and the Free State of Bavaria will support the new construction project at the Weihenstephan campus equally and with a total of roughly EUR 40 million.

battenberg@zv.tum.de news-36112 Wed, 01 Jul 2020 08:07:10 +0200
Chanterelle mushrooms as a taste enhancer https://www.tum.de/en/about-tum/news/press-releases/details/36108/ Chanterelles (Cantharellus cibarius) are one of the most popular mushrooms in Germany. Depending on the weather, chanterelle season starts in early July. Connoisseurs value the mushroom’s delicate fruity aroma, which is reminiscent of apricots, and its aromatic and slightly bitter taste profile. Not only do chanterelles have a unique flavor profile, they also function as taste enhancers, lending dishes a well-rounded mouthfeel and a lingering, rich flavor. 

Research news Katharina.Baumeister@tum.de news-36103 Tue, 30 Jun 2020 08:00:00 +0200
"We shouldn't withdraw into the virtual world" https://www.tum.de/en/about-tum/news/press-releases/details/36104/ Prof. Bengler, where do you see the greatest changes and problems in the working world?

The Corona crisis has greatly increased the amount of work we do at home. The rapid transition also made it impossible to follow certain basic labor science principles. Not everyone has a workplace at home that is as well-equipped as the workstation in office, for example in terms of lighting, desk height and a peaceful working atmosphere.

On the whole, monitor work has increased. The time needed to physically get to meetings or to the workplace has been saved. Meetings which used to gives us a break from work at the computer screen are now taking place as web meetings. As a result we gain valuable time, but this also means an increase in work done in front of the monitor. Now it's much more a matter of the employees' personal responsibility to organize themselves, take breaks from work and to optimize their workstations.

Then there are other problems, for example in many cases child care is not available, which creates a lot of stress. And in areas of work which require physical presence like production, caregiving or making foodstuffs, hygiene measures have made work even more time-consuming. This means that the entire system, which was under time pressure in the first place, has been additionally slowed down.

Has the Digital Transformation been accelerated?

The Corona crisis has an extremely intensifying effect. Companies where mobile working and telecommuting were already established options were able to increase these activities. The regulations and the technical equipment are present and there are experienced colleagues who can help others. But the crisis has also had very negative reinforcements. Companies that were still unfamiliar with these mobile working tools had a much more difficult time getting started or even experienced serious setbacks.
These companies should have the opportunity to learn from the others as quickly as possible. However there are specific best practices spread throughout all the economic sectors, no generalizations can be made here. For example, in some cases farmers are better networked than some service companies. We should learn from these experiences as quickly as possible. This is also the objective of our federally funded project "Using Good Solutions for the Future – COVID-19 Lessons Learned".

How do you intend to consolidate all these experiences?

In coordination with our partners at the RWTH Aachen University and Technische Universität Dresden (TUD) we will conduct cross-regional surveys on how the working situation was before the crisis, how the transition process has gone and what the situation looks like now. Which practices have proven useful, what agreements have been made, were they temporary or have they become permanent? Crises trigger change processes as well as learning processes. We also want to establish clarity about the areas in which companies from different industry sectors can learn from one another: For example, the use of remote monitoring in maintenance could be increased, or web meetings could replace physical meetings. We're also talking about approaches to helping solve time and space problems in many home offices on a long-term basis.

But another very important point is that we continue to ask whether or not these measures will continue to be viable for a good working situation in the future. I don't think we can or should permanently fade away into the virtual world. Our personal networks would continuously grow weaker. The goal is to be able to make recommendations on how to conduct this type of transformation process and to learn how to once again move in terms of organization in a newly emerging situation where the current restrictions have been further relaxed.

Covid-19 Research news stefanie.reiffert@tum.de news-36104 Mon, 29 Jun 2020 09:02:20 +0200
Equal opportunities through digital teaching https://www.tum.de/en/about-tum/news/press-releases/details/36102/ In Stephan Krusche's courses, just leaning back and letting the lecturer talk is not an option. "It's a priority for me for the students to become active participants in the teaching process," he explains. "Especially in informatics and software engineering, it is very important to try things out for yourself."

With over 1800 students with varying levels of prior knowledge, as in the lecture "Introduction to Software Engineering," this is a big challenge.

Campus news stefanie.reiffert@tum.de news-36101 Fri, 26 Jun 2020 10:19:00 +0200
Liesel Beckmann Professorship for Eleftheria Zeggini https://www.tum.de/en/about-tum/news/press-releases/details/36099/ Eleftheria Zeggini studied and completed her doctorate at the University of Manchester. She then moved to the Wellcome Centre for Human Genetics at the University of Oxford, where she focused on the genetics of type 2 diabetes and the design, analysis and interpretation of large-scale association studies. In 2018 she founded the Institute for Translational Genomics at Helmholtz Zentrum München, which she heads as director.

Eleftheria Zeggini‘s research leverages big data in genetics and genomics for medically important human traits. It aims to transfer the findings of genomics to mechanisms of disease development and progression and to strengthen precision medicine.

Campus news a.schmidt@tum.de news-36099 Thu, 25 Jun 2020 17:26:42 +0200
The tricks of the immune system https://www.tum.de/en/about-tum/news/press-releases/details/36076/ "The Covid-19 pandemic clearly demonstrates the importance of understanding how the immune system reacts to virus infections," says Dr. Kilian Schober. Together with an interdisciplinary team of researchers from Medicine, Biology and Bioinformatics, he is investigating how important agents in the body's immune system known as T lymphocytes or T cells react when a virus invades the organism and how the immune response changes when the infection becomes chronic.

The team was able to show that the T cell response is a dynamic process and published their findings in the journal Nature Immunology. Different T cells with different receptors are especially active in various phases of the virus infection. "The discovery of this change over time was a big surprise to us," says Schober, the lead author of the study. Until now scientists assumed that after an infection primarily those defense cells multiplied that are especially good at docking onto the cell structures impacted by the virus. As a result it was assumed that in a chronic infection the number of these highly specialized "killer" cells remained permanently increased. But the new research results show a reversal in selection: The longer the infection lasts, the lower the average binding strength of the T cells.

Research news lisa.pietrzyk@tum.de news-36073 Tue, 23 Jun 2020 12:28:00 +0200
Microsoft CEO in conversation with TUM students https://www.tum.de/en/about-tum/news/press-releases/details/36075/ To start the event, Satya Nadella and MSRM Director Prof. Sami Haddadin will discuss the opportunities presented to humanity and businesses by robotics and AI by videoconference. Students in those fields will then be able to submit questions to Mr. Nadella and Prof. Haddadin via live chat. The participating students have received personal invitations in advance.

Event christine.lehner@tum.de news-36074 Mon, 22 Jun 2020 12:29:00 +0200
The TUM start-up family boasts its second "unicorn" https://www.tum.de/en/about-tum/news/press-releases/details/36070/ Lilium was founded in 2015 by the TUM graduates Daniel Wiegand, Sebastian Born, Matthias Meiner and Patrick Nathen and attracted considerable attention with its product right from the start: an electric-powered vertical take-off and landing taxi designed to fly passengers to their destinations. Propulsion is provided by 36 wing-mounted propellers, powered by batteries that will provide a range of 300 kilometers. The flying taxi will have space for a pilot and four passengers. The company now employs more than 450 people.

Investors believe in Lilium. In March the company announced that the latest funding round had yielded $240 million. Lilium has now raised a further $35 million from a major British investor, bringing total investments to date to more than $375 million.

As reported by Bloomberg and other sources, this has boosted the company's valuation to over $1 billion. Start-ups that exceed that threshold are known as “unicorns". Lilium is the second start-up incubated at TUM to join the unicorn club. Celonis has been among the world's most successful start-ups since 2018 and was valued at an impressive $2.5 billion at the end of 2019. It provides process mining software that enables companies to analyze all of their digital business processes.

Entrepreneurship stefanie.reiffert@tum.de news-36070 Wed, 17 Jun 2020 10:26:17 +0200
Contact tracing while protecting privacy https://www.tum.de/en/about-tum/news/press-releases/details/36066/ In these days of the corona pandemic, visits to hair salons and restaurants generally involve filling out forms. Along with the conventional pen-and-paper method, the first digital solutions are now available. These require users to scan QR codes or to complete online forms. “In both cases, unauthorized persons can access personal data, which may have serious consequences especially in connection with a critical issue such as an infection,” says Georg Carle, Professor of Network Architectures and Services at TUM.

Still, effective contact tracing is important for successfully limiting the spread of pandemics, says Prof. Carle. In search of a solution, he worked with his former doctoral candidate Johann Schlamp to develop QRONITON. This service, which uses QR codes that can be scanned with a mobile phone, will enable organizations to meet their documentation obligations and help public health authorities to identify endangered individuals quickly. Any location – whether it's at a restaurant table or an seat in a lecture hall – can be provided with an individual QR code. When scanned by a user, the code is captured along with a time stamp and contact data. What sets this solution apart from similar approaches is a sophisticated, multi-stage encryption system that protects the data.

Covid-19 Research news paul.hellmich@tum.de news-36066 Fri, 12 Jun 2020 11:35:11 +0200
TUM rated as best university in the EU https://www.tum.de/en/about-tum/news/press-releases/details/36064/ To compile its rankings, QS Quacquarelli Symonds, a British specialist in the analysis of higher education institutions, conducts surveys in science and business on the quality of universities. In addition, QS assesses the citation frequency of publications, the faculty/student ratio and the proportions of international students and staff.

In the latest issue, TUM has moved up five places to number 50 and is the best-ranked university in the EU. In a pan-European comparison, it is one of the only four technical universities in the top 50 along with ETH Zurich, Imperial College London and EPF Lausanne. The top positions in the rankings are held by US universities.

TUM also regularly achieves very good results in other international rankings. For example, it ranks sixth in the world in the “Global University Employability Ranking”, in which companies rate the quality of graduates.

TUM in Rankings klaus.becker@tum.de news-36064 Wed, 10 Jun 2020 12:52:41 +0200
Remdesivir effective against Covid-19 even after short treatment periods https://www.tum.de/en/about-tum/news/press-releases/details/36062/ The medication Remdesivir is what is referred to as an RNA polymerase inhibitor and was originally tested in treatment of patients suffering from Ebola infections. In recent months several clinical studies have proven the efficacy of the medication against the new Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Since Remdesivir had proven effective in previous studies when administered for ten days, the scientists wanted to find out whether a shorter treatment period would also be successful. The results were published in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM).

Covid-19 Research news news-36060 Wed, 03 Jun 2020 17:35:00 +0200
Research to focus on: family companies, their culture and ownership https://www.tum.de/en/about-tum/news/press-releases/details/36063/ The endowment agreement was signed today by Dr. Ulrich Wacker, the chairman of the EQUA Executive Board, and Prof. Dr. Thomas F. Hofmann, the President of TUM. The chair, which will be part of the TUM School of Management, is provided with total funding of 3.8 million euros for an initial period of six years.

TUM and the EQUA Foundation expect the newly created professorship to generate new research that will be of practical use to family enterprises, their culture and the entrepreneurial families behind them. Under an interdisciplinary approach, methods from the management sciences will be combined with those of other disciplines such as sociology and psychology.

„It is today's start-ups that give rise to the family enterprises of tomorrow.”— Prof. Thomas F. Hofmann, President of TUM

TUM president Hofmann said: "We're delighted that, with the funding from the EQUA Foundation, we can contribute to the sustainable development of family enterprises with their specific working culture as an important pillar of the German economy. Especially in the wake of the coronavirus, renewed efforts are needed in this area." Prof. Hofmann added that the professorship will be located in Munich, where it will forge interdisciplinary ties. There are also wide-ranging opportunities to cooperate with researchers at TUM Campus Heilbronn, where TUM conducts research and teaching on the digital transformation of family enterprises. "A number of interesting research questions for the new chair will also arise at the interface with our many start-up founders." said President Hofmann. "After all, it is today's innovative start-ups that give rise to the culturally aware family enterprises of tomorrow."

Campus news paul.hellmich@tum.de news-36061 Tue, 02 Jun 2020 17:48:57 +0200
TUM shapes digital administration for the new decade https://www.tum.de/en/about-tum/news/press-releases/details/36055/ Public authorities in Germany lag far behind their counterparts in most other EU countries when it comes to the digitalization of their operations. According to an EU Commission report, German residents rarely have online access to essential public services. This indicates an urgent need for action that has become even more apparent amid the coronavirus pandemic. Despite widespread agreement on the need for better online access to administrative services, many legal questions remain unresolved, for instance with regard to privacy. In many cases, the expertise needed to address these issues is in short supply.

Research news news-36054 Wed, 03 Jun 2020 10:00:00 +0200
Domestic violence during the coronavirus pandemic https://www.tum.de/en/about-tum/news/press-releases/details/36053/ While restrictions on movement and physical distancing rules were in place to fight the coronavirus pandemic, there were growing concerns that women and children could be exposed to domestic violence. However, because not all victims contact the police or support services, the actual dimensions of the problem remained unknown.

Janina Steinert, Professor of Global Health at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and Dr. Cara Ebert of the RWI – Leibniz Institute for Economic Research, therefore conducted an online survey on the experiences of around 3,800 women between the ages of 18 and 65. The study is representative for Germany in terms of age, education, income, household size and place of residence. The women were asked about the preceding month between April 22 and May 8 2020, i.e. the period in which the strictest social distancing rules were in effect. To address the possibility that some of the respondents might be too embarrassed to give truthful answers, the researchers used a recognized method of indirect questioning for highly stigmatized forms of violence, e.g. sexual violence.

Covid-19 Research news klaus.becker@tum.de news-36053 Tue, 02 Jun 2020 11:00:00 +0200
TUM + FAU: Bavaria combines forces in hydrogen research https://www.tum.de/en/about-tum/news/press-releases/details/36052/ On the road to climate-friendly mobility, hydrogen plays a central role in the Bavarian government's strategy. As an energy source, hydrogen has enormous potential to reduce CO2 emissions. With the strong university partners TUM and FAU and the many leading companies in the state, Bavaria is ideally positioned to utilize the potential of this promising future field.

As a first step, with the support of the state government, TUM and FAU will combine their competencies in cooperation with industry partners to convert their research outcomes quickly and efficiently into real-world solutions.

"Our universities will play an essential role in establishing Bavaria as a leading player in innovative hydrogen technologies," said Hubert Aiwanger, the Bavarian Minister of Economic Affairs. "In particular the Technical University of Munich (TUM), with its competencies in the generation and utilization of hydrogen, and the Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, with its trailblazing research in hydrogen storage, are important partners for industry and the private sector. Their expertise will be expanded in the future through new professorships in hydrogen research. This will enable us here in Bavaria to make optimal use of our strategic advantage as a technology-based business and science landscape."

Research news stefanie.reiffert@tum.de news-36052 Fri, 29 May 2020 13:03:28 +0200
Alena Buyx is new Chair of the German Ethics Council https://www.tum.de/en/about-tum/news/press-releases/details/36050/ "I feel greatly honored and I very much look forward to representing the German Ethics Council as its Chair," says Alena Buyx on the occasion of her election. This is the first time that a member of a Technical University has held the Chair of the German Ethics Council, which has existed in its present form since 2008. Alena Buyx is the second woman and medical ethicist in this position, which she will hold until 2024.

TUM President Thomas F. Hofmann congratulates Alena Buyx: “In a time when government, economy and society are facing enormous challenges, Alena Buyx is taking on an important, influential position; I wish her great success. Now it is all the more important to proactively bring the interdisciplinary spectrum of expertise that Alena Buyx embodies to political consultations and public discourse. This will help represent the ethical dimensions of technical progress and will give the current rapid societal transformation a human and trustworthy form.”

A member of the Ethics Council since 2016, Professor Buyx has worked on numerous statements of opinion and ad hoc recommendations on topics including “Solidarity and Responsibility in the Corona Crisis”, “Intervention in the Human Germline” and “Big Data and Health – Data Sovereignty as the Shaping of Informational Freedom”. Alena Buyx is optimistic about the prospect of working with the Council: “I look forward to four productive years.”

Prof. Dr. med. Alena Buyx conducts research in fields including medical-ethical questions of clinical practice, the challenges raised by biotechnological innovation and medical research and questions of ethics and justice in modern health systems. She takes an interdisciplinary approach and collaborates with clinical colleagues as well as with colleagues in various other academic disciplines. Alena Buyx is a member of a variety of national, international and university bodies; for example, in 2019 she was named to the WHO Expert Advisory Committee on Developing Global Standards for Governance and Oversight of Human Genome Editing. Alena Buyx is a medical doctor with post-graduate degrees in Philosophy and Sociology. She earned her Habilitation in 2013.

Campus news lisa.pietrzyk@tum.de news-36050 Fri, 29 May 2020 10:36:08 +0200
The forest is changing https://www.tum.de/en/about-tum/news/press-releases/details/36049/ The record-heat summers of 2018 and 2019 have done massive damage to the forests of Central Europe. In Germany alone, more than 490,000 acres of forest died. In Australia, the last few months saw forest fires of unprecedented dimensions and large areas in the Amazon rainforest burned down as well.

However, some satellite data and model calculations suggest that photosynthetic activity is increasing – the so-called “global greening.” Furthermore, long-term observation has shown that trees – particularly in Central Europe – have better growing conditions than they had just a few decades ago; a result of shorter winters and a higher CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. So what will the forest of the future look like?

Research news Katharina.Baumeister@tum.de news-36048 Fri, 29 May 2020 09:31:55 +0200
New degree programs at TUM https://www.tum.de/en/about-tum/news/press-releases/details/36045/ Due to the covid-19 pandemic, TUM has changed the application deadlines for the 2020/21 winter semester. The application deadlines for bachelor's programs will be extended beyond July 15th, presumably until July 31st. The application deadline for master’s degrees has been extended until June 30th. For further updates on possible changes affecting degree programs, visit www.tum.de/corona/studium.

Campus news paul.hellmich@tum.de news-36045 Thu, 28 May 2020 11:28:00 +0200
Sports and the corona epidemic https://www.tum.de/en/about-tum/news/press-releases/details/36046/ What role have sporting events played in the spread of the corona pandemic?

There is evidence that Italy's patient 1 has met many people and, before he himself began to show symptoms, had already infected a large number of people in Bergamo. They, too, have probably already passed the virus on, and then came the big event, the first Champions League match between Atalanta Bergamo and FC Valencia.

At that time the people of Bergamo thought that the SARS-CoV-2 virus was just some virus in China and so no reason for concern. And there were other major events, such as the Liverpool FC game against Atlético Madrid. These were all events where 40,000, 50,000 or 60,000 people came together. Some of the spectators probably got infected in the crowd, carried the virus home and infected others there.

The spread of the virus in the ski resort of Ischgl is also quite similar: Many people got infected there, and then people spread the virus further back home. There was a flight to Iceland on February 29 with 15 infected passengers, 14 of them were in Ischgl for skiing. Norway attributed 40 percent of its corona cases in mid-March to infections in Austria. Skiing has also contributed to the high number of cases in Bavaria.

How can such effects be avoided in the future?

The examples show that sporting events have contributed significantly to the spread of the virus in Europe. What can we learn from this? Especially in international sporting events, where people from many countries come together, cheer, embrace and then travel back home, the risk of infecting each other and spreading the virus globally is high. Of course, this is now a big problem for the organization of the Olympic Games in Tokyo.

The key routes of infection are droplets and aerosols, and infection via surfaces. Sports are a multifaceted phenomenon, where different ways of infection can be a problem. We now have to think specifically about each sporting activity: How can I avoid infections here?

In order to be able to reopen football stadiums, a multitude of measures must be put in place, such ensuring the observance of social distancing at the venue, possibly face masks to prevent droplets, disinfection of railings, protective measures for catering and social distancing on the journey to the venue. Holding games without spectators is of course a relatively safe solution.

Together with a panel of experts, you have drawn up recommendations for fitness studios. What do you recommend?

We propose a detailed 5-point plan: The first point is employee training. They need to know about the pathways of infection, they need to adapt the operation of the gym to avoid droplet, aerosol and smear infections, and they need to uphold and themselves comply with the measures.

Another recommendation is to ventilate the gyms well and avoid high intensity workout. When exercising, the breathing volume increases from about five to ten liters per minute at rest to over 100 liters per minute for untrained people. Very well-trained athletes can reach a volume of over 200 liters per minute. We don't know exactly how much SARS-CoV-2 virus mass an infected person releases, but you can imagine that if someone breathes 150 liters per minute, he or she literally becomes a virus slingshot. Intensive workouts in the gym should therefore be avoided; this should be done outdoors.

If sharing training equipment, you should wipe the dumbbells with a disinfecting wipe after each use to avoid a smear infection. Ideally, one person should do all exercises and then disinfect the equipment, as the virus can survive on metal surfaces for up to a day.

If someone has become infected, it is important to keep track of who trained when. Using this list, the public health department can then quickly determine who had contact with whom, when and for how long, and can quickly test persons at risk and send them to quarantine, if necessary. All these measures would also work for club sports.

Are trained persons better protected against a severe course of the disease thanks to their fitness?

Fit and healthy young people have a low risk of a severe course of the COVID-19 disease, but are not fully protected against it. A good example is "patient 1" of the Italian Covid-19 outbreak, a 38-year-old marathon runner. Despite being physically fit, he was still in intensive care for two weeks.

While there is no clear evidence that exercise reduces the frequency of acute respiratory infections, there is evidence that regular exercise reduces the severity of infections. It has been shown that light exercise tends to strengthen the immune system, while athletes who train very hard tend to catch infections more often. Hard training should therefore be avoided, if possible.

What do you think needs special attention?

Many infections caused by the SARS-CoV2 virus occur through people who do not exhibit any symptoms of the disease. They do not have a cough, they do not have a runny nose, they feel perfectly fine. Nevertheless, they are infected and can infect other people. This is a big problem because you cannot always tell who is infected by their symptoms. The consequence for us in sports is, that we actually have to treat everyone as if he or she were infected and take appropriate protective measures – and this is also true outside sports.

Now it's time to use the positive effects of sport while minimizing the risk of infection. The legendary sports physiologists Bente Klarlund-Pedersen and Bengt Saltin have analyzed publications on 26 diseases, and for almost everyone the following applies: sport has positive effects in both prevention and therapy.

In principle, as in occupational safety, the risks must be identified and the appropriate measures developed for each type of sport. With measures such as social distancing, wearing face masks, disinfection and a suitable system for tracking, one can once again do sports with a clear conscience.

Covid-19 Research news battenberg@zv.tum.de news-36046 Thu, 28 May 2020 08:20:57 +0200
High-resolution 3D view inside tumors https://www.tum.de/en/about-tum/news/press-releases/details/36044/ Malignant tumors consume nutrients and oxygen faster than healthy cells. To do so, they recruit blood vessels in their environment. Depending on tumor type and genetic profile, there are differences on how tumors look internally. Typically, tumors present different patterns across their volume. The role of this spatial heterogeneity is not well understood or studied in living tumors. Typically used to understand biological functions in tumors, optical microscopy, for example, gives limited insights into the spatial heterogeneity of tumors as it only accesses volumes of less than a cubic millimeter.

Research news lisa.pietrzyk@tum.de news-36043 Tue, 26 May 2020 09:51:30 +0200