Prof. Dirk Haller discussing with Sandra Reitmeier and Dr. Silke Kiessling.
Prof. Dirk Haller, Sandra Reitmeier, Dr. Silke Kiessling and their team found out that arrhythmic gut bacteria can be an indicator of type 2 diabetes. (Photo: A. Heddergott / TUM)
  • Research news
  • Reading time: 3 MIN

Large-scale study with more than 4000 participants at ZIEL - Institute for Food & HealthGut bacteria improve type 2 diabetes risk prediction

The composition and function of bacteria in the human intestine – the so-called gut microbiome – changes as the day progresses. This was established by researchers based in Freising at ZIEL - Institute for Food & Health of the Technical University of Munich (TUM) with one of the largest studies related to microbiomes and diabetes comprising more than 4000 participants. These daily variations in the gut microbiome cease to exist in people suffering from type 2 diabetes.

The microbial composition of the intestines is complex and varies widely from one individual to another. Many factors such as environmental factors, lifestyle, genetics or illnesses affect the intestinal ecosystem of helpful gut bacteria.

Dirk Haller, Professor for Nutrition and Immunology at TUM, and his team have examined the importance of daytime-dependent fluctuations of the gut microbiome in relation to type 2 diabetes; they present their study encompassing more than 4000 people and it is the first study in this field based on a large prospective human cohort.

The relationship between gut bacteria and medical conditions

”In order to see whether changes in the gut microbiome allow conclusions about medical conditions, so-called prospective cohort studies are required,” explained Prof. Haller.

In these prospective cohort studies, a cross section of the population is being observed; however, none of the participants showed any signs of disease. This population is being re-examined over time. This way, researchers can find out whether a certain observation may be typical for future occurrences of diseases.

Diagnosis and outlook of type 2 diabetes may be improved

“When certain gut bacteria do not follow a day-night rhythm, so if their number and function does not change over the course of the day, this can be an indicator for a potential type 2 diabetes disease. Knowing this can improve diagnosis and outlook of type 2 diabetes,” said Chronobiologist Dr. Silke Kiessling, another contributor to the study.

These arrhythmic bacteria – those that are not changing between day and night – are a marker for potential disease. Researchers refer to this as a risk signature. “Mathematical models also show that this microbial risk signature consisting of arrhythmic bacteria helps diagnosing diabetes,” explained Sandra Reitmeier, first author on the study.

Primarily, the scientists analyzed data from an existing independent cohort by Helmholtz Zentrum München. The diabetes-related results were validated using additional cohorts from Germany. “By comparing our data to cohorts in England, we could confirm that there is – among other things – a strong regional factor affecting the microbial ecosystem. Therefore, there is a demand for finding locally specified arrhythmic risk signatures,” elaborated Haller.

Nutritionist Haller emphasizes that “apart from bacteria and their variations over the course of the day, other parameters such as the body mass index play a role in being able to better predict a person’s future medical conditions.”


Intestinal bacteria’s day and night rhythm as starting point for further research

Registering the time of day when taking human fecal samples for research purposes can heavily influence disease diagnostics. “Documenting these timestamps is essential for improving risk markers,” Prof. Haller emphasizes.

This research substantiates the hypothesis that changes in the microbiome have an effect of nutrition-related diseases. How gut bacteria changing (or not changing) during the day affect other microbiome-associated diseases such as Crohn’s disease or intestinal cancer may be subject to further scientific examination.

The results of this study are of particular importance for further work in the Collaborative Research Center of “Microbiome Signatures”, as cohort studies offer valuable possibilities of comparing data of healthy and ill subjects, particularly in the context of clinical studies.



Reitmeier, Sandra, Kiessling, Silke, et al., Haller, Dirk. (2020): "Arrhythmic gut microbiome signatures predict risk of Type 2 Diabetes" in: Cell Host & Microbe. DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2020.06.004

More information:

The study was conducted by the Chair of Nutrition and Immunology, as well as ZIEL - Institute for Food & Health at TUM, Helmholtz Zentrum München, University College Cork, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel (CAU), the University of London and King’s College London.

Data from the following cohorts was examined: the KORA cohort by Helmholtz Zentrum München, the FoCuS cohort by Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel and the enable-cluster cohort at TUM School of Life Sciences in Weihenstephan.

The scientific paper was created within the Collaborative Research Center “Microbiome Signatures” funded by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG German Research Foundation SFB1371) and was co-funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF / JPI DINAMIC).

Images for journalists

Technical University of Munich

Corporate Communications Center Dr. Katharina Baumeister

Contacts to this article:

Article at

Regular glucose measurements and intensified insulin therapy can improve blood glucose control in diabetes - but it is not yet curable. However, researchers at TUM have now discovered a target for getting to the root of the disease.

New promising target for diabetes treatment

One hundred years after the discovery of insulin and fifty years after that of the insulin receptor, researchers have now discovered a novel - and druggable - insulin inhibitory receptor, named inceptor. This could open up...

 President Thomas F. Hofmann discussed the planned university reform with Science Minister Bernd Sibler, moderated by student Silja Wöhrle.

“We’re working hard on the future”

In the first-ever online edition of its annual celebration, the TUM community looked back on the year to date. Against the backdrop of the coronavirus pandemic, 2020 has been one of the most challenging years in its...

Prof. Haller, Dr. Eva Rath and Sevana Khaloian discussing results.

Preserving inflammation-free phases

Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the intestine that, in most cases, relapses episodically. As of now, there is no cure for this disease. A research group led by the Technical University of Munich (TUM)...

Nicht der Zellstress allein führt zum Tumorwachstum, sondern die Zusammenarbeit von Stress und Mikrobiota, fand Prof. Dirk Haller mit seinem Team heraus – hier bei der Analyse von Gewebeschnitten mit den Wissenschaftlerinnen Sandra Bierwirth (li.) und Olivia Coleman. (Bild: A. Heddergott/ TUM)

The microbiota in the intestines fuels tumour growth

The team of Professor Dirk Haller at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) made an unexpected discovery while investigating the triggering factors of colon cancer:  Cell stress in combination with an altered microbiota...

Die Bilder zeigen Paneth-Zellen im Dünndarm, die bei der Immunabwehr eine wichtige Rolle spielen. Bei Mäusen mit Morbus-Crohn-ähnlicher Entzündung produzieren die Paneth-Zellen weniger Lysozym - eine Substanz, die wichtig für die Mikroben-Abwehr ist. Links: gesunde Zellen mit hoher Lysozym-Produktion (helles grün), rechts geschädigte Paneth-Zellen mit geringer Lysozym-Produktion.

Novel mechanism for Crohn’s disease uncovered

Crohn’s disease is one of a family of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). While it has already been proven to have genetic causes, scientists have now shown that the presence of certain intestinal bacteria also plays...